History of the town of Hatvan

he city of Hatvan has played a decisive role in the history of the region since the Bronze Age. The strategic role and viable nature of the location is justified by the many archaeological findings from the people of the age of migration; from Scythians, Celts, Sarmatians, Avars and the permanently settled Hungarians.
According to the historical documents, the name of the settlement was first described in a 1222 diploma. In the 11-12th centuries the town got its current location, its centre was situated in the place that is today the main square. In the last third of the 12th century, a Premonstratensian priory was founded in honour of St. Margaret of Antioch, which also functioned as a Loca Credibilia, increasing the role of the town. In the 19th century, more and more people migrated to Hatvan, which also had nationally known fairs and, due to its central location and development, gained market-town rank from Sigismund of Luxembourg. The most significant owner of the land was the Hatvani family. In 1525 a parliament was held in Hatvan, which brought about significant changes in the country's political relations. In the years following the lost battle of Mohács against the Turks in 1526, a plank fortress was built against the Turkish threat. After the siege of Buda, the town was under Turkish rule until 1544-1686 with minor interruptions. Hatvan was transformed into an administrative seat, and its defense was strengthened. Apart from the occupying Turkish army, Muslim traders and craftsmen also settled. Mosque, bath and medres were built as well.
In the period following the expulsion of the Turks, Hatvan was finally on the way of development after more than one and a half centuries of deterioration and stagnation. Count Antal Grassalkovich I, Queen Mária Terézia's advisor bought the Hatvan estate in 1734. Recognizing the opportunities, he made a conscious effort in urban planning: he built the castle, the temple, the inn and the brewery house, which are still intact in the town centre, and in 1762 he founded a linen factory, but this was later demolished. The image of the town is still defined by these buildings, which are illustrious examples of Baroque architecture.
During the 1848-49 Revolution and War of Independence, the first winning battle of the Spring campaign took place in Hatvan. After the Compromise of 1867 the town of Hatvan went through developments that were previously unheard of. Its significance as a transport hub increased with the opening of the railway station. The Deutsch family, who purchased the castle and the entire estate, initiated significant industrial developments. In 1889, the largest sugar factory in Europe was built, which functioned in the town for 114 years. It closed in 2003. As a result of the development, the population of the city tripled.
The descendants of the new owner of the manor, Ignác Deutsch - who first became Hatvany-Deutsch, later became Hatvany - were dominant figures of the late 19th and early 20th century. Lajos Hatvany, a literary historian, is mainly known as a patron, his brother, Ferenc was a collector of art, and was himself a painter. The selfless help of their sister, Irén Hatvany improved a lot on the social welfare of the community.
After World War I, Hungary suffered significant territorial losses, which also affected Hatvan. Progress continued, but the global economic crisis also had an impact, and the effects of World War II caused great losses. On September 20, 1944, British-American bombers destroyed the railway station and its surroundings, killing hundreds of civilians. In the decades following World War II, the city was characterized by extensive industrialization and construction. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the end of the Eastern European dictatorships, the city of Hatvan is constantly evolving, using its qualities, as it has done many times in its history, preserving the values ​​of the rich past, and meeting the challenges of the current age.